Character Functions

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There are several different ways of asking for character properties.  It is a common myth that islower, isupper, isalpha, and similar functions from the C library are actually trustworthy.  They are not, in general.  The table below illustrates this problem with these functions by comparing the results for the first 256 characters.

For the character transformations, a gray background means the character value did not change under the transformation requests.

For the character predicates, a gray background means a false (0) value.

The boundaries between the operations are done in alternating colors in groups of 32.

This output compares the default behavior for the C locale.  The general tool allows you to see the behavior with different font sets and different locales.  download.gif (1234 bytes)

The locale information used for this table was

Character   tolower   toupper   CharLower   CharUpper   i
s
a
l
n
u
m
 
i
s
a
l
p
h
a
  _
_
i
s
a
s
c
i
i
  i
s
c
n
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r
l
  _
_
i
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c
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y
m
  _

i
s
c
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y
m
f
  i
s
d
i
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i
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  i
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g
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a
p
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  i
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  i
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  i
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  i
s
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  i
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  i
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x
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i
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  I
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C
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A
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  I
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Dec Hex Char   Hex Char   Hex Char   Hex Char   Hex Char
0 00 \x00
t
o
l
o
w
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r
00 \x00
t
o
u
p
p
e
r
00 \x00
C
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L
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00 \x00
C
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U
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00 \x00
i
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u
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i
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p
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a
 
_
_
i
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a
s
c
i
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1
i
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c
n
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r
l
32
_
i
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c
s
y
m
0
_
i
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c
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y
m
f
0
i
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d
i
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i
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0
i
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p
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0
i
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0
i
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n
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0
i
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0
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0
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0
i
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i
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i
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0
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A
l
p
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a
0
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0
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0   0
1 01 \x01 01 \x01 01 \x01 01 \x01 01 \x01 0 0 1 32 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
2 02 \x02 02 \x02 02 \x02 02 \x02 02 \x02 0 0 1 32 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
3 03 \x03 03 \x03 03 \x03 03 \x03 03 \x03 0 0 1 32 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
4 04 \x04 04 \x04 04 \x04 04 \x04 04 \x04 0 0 1 32 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
5 05 \x05 05 \x05 05 \x05 05 \x05 05 \x05 0 0 1 32 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
6 06 \x06 06 \x06 06 \x06 06 \x06 06 \x06 0 0 1 32 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
7 07 \a 07 \a 07 \a 07 \a 07 \a 0 0 1 32 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
8 08 \b 08 \b 08 \b 08 \b 08 \b 0 0 1 32 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
9 09 \t 09 \t 09 \t 09 \t 09 \t 0 0 1 32 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 8 0 0 0 0 0 0
10 0a \n 0a \n 0a \n 0a \n 0a \n 0 0 1 32 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 8 0 0 0 0 0 0
11 0b \v 0b \v 0b \v 0b \v 0b \v 0 0 1 32 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 8 0 0 0 0 0 0
12 0c \f 0c \f 0c \f 0c \f 0c \f 0 0 1 32 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 8 0 0 0 0 0 0
13 0d \r 0d \r 0d \r 0d \r 0d \r 0 0 1 32 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 8 0 0 0 0 0 0
14 0e \x0e 0e \x0e 0e \x0e 0e \x0e 0e \x0e 0 0 1 32 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
15 0f \x0f 0f \x0f 0f \x0f 0f \x0f 0f \x0f 0 0 1 32 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
16 10 \x10 10 \x10 10 \x10 10 \x10 10 \x10 0 0 1 32 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
17 11 \x11 11 \x11 11 \x11 11 \x11 11 \x11 0 0 1 32 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
18 12 \x12 12 \x12 12 \x12 12 \x12 12 \x12 0 0 1 32 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
19 13 \x13 13 \x13 13 \x13 13 \x13 13 \x13 0 0 1 32 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
20 14 \x14 14 \x14 14 \x14 14 \x14 14 \x14 0 0 1 32 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
21 15 \x15 15 \x15 15 \x15 15 \x15 15 \x15 0 0 1 32 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
22 16 \x16 16 \x16 16 \x16 16 \x16 16 \x16 0 0 1 32 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
23 17 \x17 17 \x17 17 \x17 17 \x17 17 \x17 0 0 1 32 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
24 18 \x18 18 \x18 18 \x18 18 \x18 18 \x18 0 0 1 32 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
25 19 \x19 19 \x19 19 \x19 19 \x19 19 \x19 0 0 1 32 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
26 1a \x1a 1a \x1a 1a \x1a 1a \x1a 1a \x1a 0 0 1 32 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
27 1b \x1b 1b \x1b 1b \x1b 1b \x1b 1b \x1b 0 0 1 32 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
28 1c \x1c 1c \x1c 1c \x1c 1c \x1c 1c \x1c 0 0 1 32 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
29 1d \x1d 1d \x1d 1d \x1d 1d \x1d 1d \x1d 0 0 1 32 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
30 1e \x1e 1e \x1e 1e \x1e 1e \x1e 1e \x1e 0 0 1 32 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
31 1f \x1f 1f \x1f 1f \x1f 1f \x1f 1f \x1f 0 0 1 32 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
32 20  
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20  
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20  
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20  
C
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20  
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0
i
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0
_
_
i
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i
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1
i
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0
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i
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0
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0
i
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0
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0
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0
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64
i
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0
i
s
s
p
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8
i
s
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0
i
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x
d
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0
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0
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0


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0
33 21 ! 21 ! 21 ! 21 ! 21 ! 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 16 0 16 16 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
34 22 " 22 " 22 " 22 " 22 " 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 16 0 16 16 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
35 23 # 23 # 23 # 23 # 23 # 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 16 0 16 16 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
36 24 $ 24 $ 24 $ 24 $ 24 $ 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 16 0 16 16 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
37 25 % 25 % 25 % 25 % 25 % 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 16 0 16 16 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
38 26 & 26 & 26 & 26 & 26 & 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 16 0 16 16 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
39 27 ' 27 ' 27 ' 27 ' 27 ' 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 16 0 16 16 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
40 28 ( 28 ( 28 ( 28 ( 28 ( 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 16 0 16 16 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
41 29 ) 29 ) 29 ) 29 ) 29 ) 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 16 0 16 16 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
42 2a * 2a * 2a * 2a * 2a * 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 16 0 16 16 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
43 2b + 2b + 2b + 2b + 2b + 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 16 0 16 16 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
44 2c , 2c , 2c , 2c , 2c , 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 16 0 16 16 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
45 2d - 2d - 2d - 2d - 2d - 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 16 0 16 16 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
46 2e . 2e . 2e . 2e . 2e . 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 16 0 16 16 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
47 2f / 2f / 2f / 2f / 2f / 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 16 0 16 16 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
48 30 0 30 0 30 0 30 0 30 0 4 0 1 0 1 0 4 4 0 4 0 0 0 128 0 1 0 0
49 31 1 31 1 31 1 31 1 31 1 4 0 1 0 1 0 4 4 0 4 0 0 0 128 0 1 0 0
50 32 2 32 2 32 2 32 2 32 2 4 0 1 0 1 0 4 4 0 4 0 0 0 128 0 1 0 0
51 33 3 33 3 33 3 33 3 33 3 4 0 1 0 1 0 4 4 0 4 0 0 0 128 0 1 0 0
52 34 4 34 4 34 4 34 4 34 4 4 0 1 0 1 0 4 4 0 4 0 0 0 128 0 1 0 0
53 35 5 35 5 35 5 35 5 35 5 4 0 1 0 1 0 4 4 0 4 0 0 0 128 0 1 0 0
54 36 6 36 6 36 6 36 6 36 6 4 0 1 0 1 0 4 4 0 4 0 0 0 128 0 1 0 0
55 37 7 37 7 37 7 37 7 37 7 4 0 1 0 1 0 4 4 0 4 0 0 0 128 0 1 0 0
56 38 8 38 8 38 8 38 8 38 8 4 0 1 0 1 0 4 4 0 4 0 0 0 128 0 1 0 0
57 39 9 39 9 39 9 39 9 39 9 4 0 1 0 1 0 4 4 0 4 0 0 0 128 0 1 0 0
58 3a : 3a : 3a : 3a : 3a : 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 16 0 16 16 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
59 3b ; 3b ; 3b ; 3b ; 3b ; 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 16 0 16 16 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
60 3c < 3c < 3c < 3c < 3c < 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 16 0 16 16 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
61 3d = 3d = 3d = 3d = 3d = 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 16 0 16 16 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
62 3e > 3e > 3e > 3e > 3e > 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 16 0 16 16 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
63 3f ? 3f ? 3f ? 3f ? 3f ? 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 16 0 16 16 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
64 40 @
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40 @
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0
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16
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16
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16
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65 41 A 61 a 41 A 61 a 41 A 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 128 1 1 0 1
66 42 B 62 b 42 B 62 b 42 B 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 128 1 1 0 1
67 43 C 63 c 43 C 63 c 43 C 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 128 1 1 0 1
68 44 D 64 d 44 D 64 d 44 D 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 128 1 1 0 1
69 45 E 65 e 45 E 65 e 45 E 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 128 1 1 0 1
70 46 F 66 f 46 F 66 f 46 F 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 128 1 1 0 1
71 47 G 67 g 47 G 67 g 47 G 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1
72 48 H 68 h 48 H 68 h 48 H 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1
73 49 I 69 i 49 I 69 i 49 I 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1
74 4a J 6a j 4a J 6a j 4a J 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1
75 4b K 6b k 4b K 6b k 4b K 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1
76 4c L 6c l 4c L 6c l 4c L 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1
77 4d M 6d m 4d M 6d m 4d M 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1
78 4e N 6e n 4e N 6e n 4e N 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1
79 4f O 6f o 4f O 6f o 4f O 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1
80 50 P 70 p 50 P 70 p 50 P 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1
81 51 Q 71 q 51 Q 71 q 51 Q 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1
82 52 R 72 r 52 R 72 r 52 R 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1
83 53 S 73 s 53 S 73 s 53 S 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1
84 54 T 74 t 54 T 74 t 54 T 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1
85 55 U 75 u 55 U 75 u 55 U 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1
86 56 V 76 v 56 V 76 v 56 V 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1
87 57 W 77 w 57 W 77 w 57 W 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1
88 58 X 78 x 58 X 78 x 58 X 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1
89 59 Y 79 y 59 Y 79 y 59 Y 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1
90 5a Z 7a z 5a Z 7a z 5a Z 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1
91 5b [ 5b [ 5b [ 5b [ 5b [ 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 16 0 16 16 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
92 5c \ 5c \ 5c \ 5c \ 5c \ 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 16 0 16 16 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
93 5d ] 5d ] 5d ] 5d ] 5d ] 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 16 0 16 16 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
94 5e ^ 5e ^ 5e ^ 5e ^ 5e ^ 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 16 0 16 16 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
95 5f _ 5f _ 5f _ 5f _ 5f _ 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 16 0 16 16 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
96 60 `
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16
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0
97 61 a 61 a 41 A 61 a 41 A 2 2 1 0 1 1 0 2 2 2 0 0 0 128 1 1 1 0
98 62 b 62 b 42 B 62 b 42 B 2 2 1 0 1 1 0 2 2 2 0 0 0 128 1 1 1 0
99 63 c 63 c 43 C 63 c 43 C 2 2 1 0 1 1 0 2 2 2 0 0 0 128 1 1 1 0
100 64 d 64 d 44 D 64 d 44 D 2 2 1 0 1 1 0 2 2 2 0 0 0 128 1 1 1 0
101 65 e 65 e 45 E 65 e 45 E 2 2 1 0 1 1 0 2 2 2 0 0 0 128 1 1 1 0
102 66 f 66 f 46 F 66 f 46 F 2 2 1 0 1 1 0 2 2 2 0 0 0 128 1 1 1 0
103 67 g 67 g 47 G 67 g 47 G 2 2 1 0 1 1 0 2 2 2 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0
104 68 h 68 h 48 H 68 h 48 H 2 2 1 0 1 1 0 2 2 2 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0
105 69 i 69 i 49 I 69 i 49 I 2 2 1 0 1 1 0 2 2 2 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0
106 6a j 6a j 4a J 6a j 4a J 2 2 1 0 1 1 0 2 2 2 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0
107 6b k 6b k 4b K 6b k 4b K 2 2 1 0 1 1 0 2 2 2 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0
108 6c l 6c l 4c L 6c l 4c L 2 2 1 0 1 1 0 2 2 2 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0
109 6d m 6d m 4d M 6d m 4d M 2 2 1 0 1 1 0 2 2 2 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0
110 6e n 6e n 4e N 6e n 4e N 2 2 1 0 1 1 0 2 2 2 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0
111 6f o 6f o 4f O 6f o 4f O 2 2 1 0 1 1 0 2 2 2 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0
112 70 p 70 p 50 P 70 p 50 P 2 2 1 0 1 1 0 2 2 2 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0
113 71 q 71 q 51 Q 71 q 51 Q 2 2 1 0 1 1 0 2 2 2 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0
114 72 r 72 r 52 R 72 r 52 R 2 2 1 0 1 1 0 2 2 2 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0
115 73 s 73 s 53 S 73 s 53 S 2 2 1 0 1 1 0 2 2 2 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0
116 74 t 74 t 54 T 74 t 54 T 2 2 1 0 1 1 0 2 2 2 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0
117 75 u 75 u 55 U 75 u 55 U 2 2 1 0 1 1 0 2 2 2 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0
118 76 v 76 v 56 V 76 v 56 V 2 2 1 0 1 1 0 2 2 2 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0
119 77 w 77 w 57 W 77 w 57 W 2 2 1 0 1 1 0 2 2 2 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0
120 78 x 78 x 58 X 78 x 58 X 2 2 1 0 1 1 0 2 2 2 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0
121 79 y 79 y 59 Y 79 y 59 Y 2 2 1 0 1 1 0 2 2 2 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0
122 7a z 7a z 5a Z 7a z 5a Z 2 2 1 0 1 1 0 2 2 2 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0
123 7b { 7b { 7b { 7b { 7b { 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 16 0 16 16 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
124 7c | 7c | 7c | 7c | 7c | 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 16 0 16 16 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
125 7d } 7d } 7d } 7d } 7d } 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 16 0 16 16 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
126 7e ~ 7e ~ 7e ~ 7e ~ 7e ~ 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 16 0 16 16 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
127 7f \x7f 7f \x7f 7f \x7f 7f \x7f 7f \x7f 0 0 1 32 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
128 80
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